CNC machining, computer numerical control, is a manufacturing method in which programming software directs the operation of factory tools and machines. It is designed to manage a variety of complex machines, from grinders and lathes to milling machines and routers. The purpose of CNC is to overcome the limitations of mechanical manual operation, where buttons, levers, controls, and wheels must be manually activated. Simply put, CNC is a three-dimensional cutting through a set of programmed instructions.
The types of processing listed here are just a few of the methods used in modern production. To meet the demands of innovative designs, professional and custom tools are constantly being refined.
CNC machines operate using a numerical control system, where production is controlled by a software program. The language of the process is written in G-code to control the various operations of a machine. The CNC system allows the operator to pre-program the performance of the machine to perform repetitive, predictable functions. The precision and efficiency of CNC have made it a popular manufacturing method mainly in the metalworking and plastics production industries.
Forms of Burning Machining Technologies
Machining methods have been used for many years. Through innovation and technological advancement, other processes have been developed to remove layers that do not require grinding, boring or mechanical tools. Some of these techniques are called combustion, where workpieces are heated and melted to achieve shapes and designs. The most common types are laser, oxy-fuel, and plasma.
The contact of the high-energy laser beam with the workpiece generates thermal energy. The heat generated melts, burns, and vaporizes the surface of the workpiece, giving it its shape. There are two types of lasers - gas lasers and solid state lasers. In gas lasers, gases are used to generate heat including He-Ne, argon, and Co2. . Solid state lasers come in different forms, including YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet), Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), and ruby. The laser cutting process can mold steel or etch patterns. Its advantages include high-quality surface finish and cutting accuracy. Laser machining produces highly precise, precisely placed cuts and has the ability to cut or shape any type of material.
Oxy-fuel cutting, also known as gas cutting, is mainly used for cutting thick steel plates. The heat source for cutting oxyfuel is generated by combining oxygen with fuels such as acetylene, gasoline, hydrogen or propane. The oxy-fuel torch heats the workpiece to the ignition temperature, about 960°C, and once the proper temperature is reached, pure oxygen is heated directly through the nozzle for cutting. Oxygen turns heated and unprotected steel into an oxidizing liquid through an exothermic reaction. The resulting slag is blown out of the heated cavity. The process can cut deeper angles up to 70 degrees and is more economical than other combustion methods.
Plasma cutting is a popular and economical method of cutting steel. The process of plasma cutting involves the use of a plasma torch to create a plasma arc.。
The torch emits an electric arc that converts an inert ionized gas or plasma to extremely high temperatures. Heat from the torch is applied to the workpiece to melt unwanted material at high speed. Metal machined in this way is charged because an electric current flows between the torch's electrode and the workpiece. Plasma cutting can cut thin or thick materials. The handheld torch can cut 38mm thick material, while the CNC machine can cut 150mm thick steel plate.